A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and retransmitting it to another. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.
A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts; using a semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics, and sometimes multiple operating coils, are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called “protective relays.”