Working of Pitot tube

The pitot tube measures the velocity at point in the conduct. If quantity rate measurement is desired, it must be calculated from the ratio of average velocity to the velocity at the point of measurement.

Principle : If a tube is placed with its open and facing into a stream of fluid, then the fluid impinging on the open end will be brought to rest, and the kinetic energy converted to pressure energy. This the pressure built up in the tube will be greater than that in the free stream by the impact pressure or pressure produced by loss of kinetic energy. The increase in pressure will depend upon the square of the velocity of the stream. The difference is measured between the pressure in the tube and static pressure of the stream.

The static pressure is measured by a tapping in the wall of the main or by a tapping incorporated in the pitot static tube itself. The difference between the pressure in the tube and static pressure will be a measure of the impact pressure and therefore of the velocity of the stream oil.